European Commissioner for Cohesion and Reforms since December 2019, Elisa Ferreira graduated in Economics from the University of Porto (1978) and earned a Masters' Degree (1981) and a PHD (1985) from the University of Reading, UK. Before joining the European Commission, she was a member of the Board (2016-2017) and vice-president (2017-2019) of Portugal's Central Bank and Portugal's representative to the Supervisory Board of the European Central Bank's Single Supervisory Mechanism (2016-2019). She was a member of the European Parliament (2004-2016) and of the Portuguese Parliament (2002-2004). Elisa Ferreira was Portugal's Minister for Planning (1999-2002) and Minister for the Environment (1995-1999). Before that she was the executive Vice-President of Porto's Industrial Association (1992-1994) and Vice-President of Portugal's Northern Region Coordination Commission (1988-1992). She is a professor of Economics.